Organosulphur compounds are used in pharmaceuticals, dyestuffs, and agrochemicals. Many prescription medications contain sulphur, early examples being antibacterial sulfonamides known as sulfa prescription medications. Sulphur is a part of many bacterial defense molecules. Most β-lactam antibiotics, including the penicillins, cephalosporins and monolactams contain sulphur.

Magnesium sulphate, known as Epsom salts when in hydrated crystal form, can be used as a laxative, a bath additive, an exfoliant, magnesium supplement for plants, or (when in dehydrated form) as a desiccant.